#26 Floor and Wall Openings

Floor, roof and skylight openings shall be guarded by either temporary railings and toeboards or by covers. Temporary railing and toeboards: railing shall be provided on all exposed sides, except at entrances to stairways.

Temporary floor openings shall have standard railings. Floor holes, into which persons can accidentally walk, shall be guarded by either a standard railing with standard toeboard on all exposed sides, or a floor hole cover of standard strength and construction that is secured against accidental displacement. While the cover is not in place, the floor hole shall be protected by standard railing.

Covers shall be capable of safely supporting 400 lbs or twice the weight of the employees, equipment and materials that may be imposed on any one square foot area of the cover at any time. Covers shall be secured in place to prevent accidental removal or displacement, and shall bear a pressure sensitized, painted, or stenciled sign with legible letters not less than one inch high, stating: “Opening–Do Not Remove.” Markings of chalk or keel shall not be used.

Wall openings, from which there is a drop of more than 4 feet, and the bottom of the opening is less than 3 feet above the working surface, shall be guarded as follows:

(1) When the height and placement of the opening in relation to the working surface is such that either a standard rail or intermediate rail will effectively reduce the danger of falling, one or both shall be provided;

(2) The bottom of a wall opening, which is less than 4 in above the working surface, regardless of width, shall be protected by a standard toeboard or an enclosing screen either of solid construction or as specified in this section.

Wall opening protection shall meet the following requirements:

(1) Barriers shall be of such construction and mounting that, when in place at the opening, the barrier is capable of withstanding a load of at least 200 lbs applied in any direction (except upward).

(2) Screens shall be of such construction and mounting that they are capable of withstanding a load of at least 200 lbs applied horizontally at any point on the near side of the screen. They may be of solid construction, of grill work with openings not more than 8 in long, or of slat work with openings not more than 4 in wide with length unrestricted.